Advancing

Challenges a developing country like Kenya faces in implementing web based mapping

  1. Data limitations

This is a problem that has faced GIS users for decades in both developed and developing nations. Finding the money to collect new data and to convert paper maps and data into digital format continues to be a problem. In many cases digital data do exist, but there are issues of  confidentiality, national security, etc.

A near national coverage only exists at the scale range of 1:200000 or 1:250000. At 1:50 000, about two-thirds of the land area is covered and at 1:25 000 less than one-third. The coverage at these scales is in analogue form, but is subject to progress in vectorization or at least in raster scanning. No data surveys exist at large scales especially Kenya’s rural areas.

Based on data requirements, general and specialized GIS systems have to be designed for a variety of purposes including:

• for environmental management and conservation.

• for defence and intelligence purposes.

• for governmental administration.

• for resource management in agriculture and forestry.

• for geophysical exploration.

• for cadastral management.

• for telecommunications.

• for utility management.

• for business applications.

• for construction projects.

Many of these applications require common base data. It will be the purpose of an administrative authority to create a spatial data infrastructure by which the base data may easily be exchanged.

of specific interest may be added

3D-vector data for instance can be obtained directly by terrestrial survey equipment such as:

• theodolites.

• electronic tacheometers.

• levelling instruments.

• GPS receivers.

• mobile mapping systems.

3D information from aerial photographs may be compiled by analogue or analytical plotters or by digital photogrammetric workstations which are very few and very costly for an effective digital database creation for the public at least.

2.      Availability of Geoportals

The need to have organized Geoportals is an essential requirement for an effective web based mapping and GIS as a whole. A number of companies like Ramani communications now act as data warehouses providing limited spatial data to potential customers. In some cases the companies do not actually produce the data themselves, but provide easy access to a catalogue of spatial data products produced by others. Some Geoportals provide attribute and spatial data free, and make their money by selling advertising. For collaborative usage of data for instance in the areas shown below will require documented Geoportals for web usage of the same in other departments.

 3.      Networking Issues

Network and communication issues involving spatial data is a major overhead in developing countries trying to implement web based GIS. GIS applications require a significant amount of resources on the desktop and with respect to network performance. By its nature a GIS allows a user to have access to and analyze large amounts of data and present the results in a graphical format. Access to these data for real-time display and analysis puts large demands on network communications in terms of costs. Data must be transported across the network to where the desktop application is executed to display the information in an efficient manner. The concept behind networking and the issues that must be considered when planning a network can be summarized into the following categories:

◆ The type of communication that will be used

◆ Local area network (LAN) versus wide area network (WAN) considerations

◆ The speed of the component hubs, switches, routers and network interface cards (NICs)

◆ The operating system and software that are running on the servers

◆ Whether or not a file server- or client server-based architecture will be used

◆ Whether a centralized or decentralized servers will be adopted

◆ Whether or not to use replication when there are multiple servers

All these issues necessitate a huge financial input which many African countries lack. Network GIS can use the cross-platform Web browser to host the viewer user interface. Currently, clients are typically very thin, often with simple display and query capabilities, although there is an increasing trend for them to become more functionally rich.

4.      Ownership of Geographic Information system

There are two ways to look at ownership: within and outside the organization. Ownership of the data inside the organization is something the organization  like Ramani can control; ownership when viewed from the outside the organization can be more complex. For example, is the Survey of Kenya to own the web based GIS or who should bear the greatest responsibility in terms of control. If the GIS was to be liberalized then various organizations can design the process, make decisions about control and accountability for each layer, set of features in their databases, and tables in the databases. These issues arise as it becomes clear to different units of the organization and country that data they previously regarded as their domain are going to be more easily shared and seen by other users. It is no secret that control of information is about power within the set-up, so the introduction of a new way or organizing and sharing that information—the new GIS—will disrupt the existing lines of power within the organizations and government. A thorny issue comes  when the questions about whose budget will be supporting the GIS arise.

5.      User Roles

If the GIS is going to support the activities of multiple units within a ministry, department or any other, a basic assumption is that these units/ departments all have a stake in how the ownership is arranged. Sometimes, in state and local government, there are legal restrictions on who may or may not make certain modifications to the data, and

these certainly must be considered. People interact with relational databases through sets of defined roles and privileges. Roles and people are not the same type of thing because one person may, at different times, have several roles.

6.      GIS Software

GIS software is the processing engine and a vital component of an operational GIS. It is made up of integrated collections of computer programs that implement geographic processing functions. The three key parts of any GIS software system are the user interface, the tools (functions), and the data manager. All three parts may be located on a single computer or they may be spread over multiple machines in a departmental or enterprise configuration.Four main types of computer system architecture configurations are used to build operational GIS implementations: desktop, client-server, centralized desktop, and centralized server. There are many different types of GIS software categorized into desktop, server (including Internet), developer, hand-held, and others. The most used GIS software typically originates from the United States or Europe. In some cases this results in problems getting copies of the software as well as getting support for the software, particularly if the problem cannot be solved via telephone or email. The market leading commercial GIS software vendors are ESRI, Intergraph, Autodesk, and GE Energy.

Alternative distribution models that are becoming increasingly prevalent include shareware (usually intended for sale after a trial period), liteware (shareware with some capabilities disabled), freeware (free software but with copyright restrictions), public domain software (free with no restrictions), and open source software (where the source code is provided and users agree not to limit the distribution of improvements).

Professional softwares are very expensive to buy and maintain. The term ‘professional’ relates to the full-featured nature of this subcategory of software. The distinctive features of professional GIS include data collection and editing, database administration, advanced geoprocessing and analysis, and other specialist tools. Professional GIS offer a superset of the capabilities of the systems .

7.      Lack of adequate Hardware components

The hardware of a GIS is composed of:

• input devices.

• processing and storage devices.

• output devices

Digital data input depends on the type of data to be utilized. Imagery input is possible from analogue images through the use of image scanners. Digital airborne and space-borne systems already use charge-coupled device CCD-sensors to supply the data in digital form.

 

 8. Graphic standards

The purpose of any GIS application is to provide information to support planning and management. As this information is intended to reduce uncertainty in decision-making, any errors and uncertainties in spatial databases and GIS output products may have practical, financial and even legal implications for the user. For these reasons, those involved in the acquisition and processing of spatial data should be able to assess the quality of the base data and the derived information products.

 

Most spatial data are collected and held by individual, specialized organizations. Some ‘base’ data are generally the responsibility of the various governmental agencies, such as the National Mapping Agency, which has the mandate to collect topographic data for the entire country following pre-set standards. These organizations are, however, not the only sources of spatial data. Agencies such as geological surveys, energy supply companies, local government departments, and many others, all maintain spatial data for their own particular purposes. If this data is to be shared among different users, these users need to know not only what data exists, where and in what format it is held, but also whether the data meets their particular quality requirements. This ‘data about data’ is known as metadata.

The International Standards Organization (ISO) considers quality to be “the totality of characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy a stated and implied need” (Godwin, 1999). The extent to which errors and other shortcomings of a data set affect decision making depends on the purpose for which the data is to be used. For this reason, quality is often define as ‘fitness for use’.

Traditionally, errors and accuracy in paper maps are considered in terms of

1. attribute errors in the classification or labelling of features, and

2. errors in the location, or height of features, known as the positional error.

There is therefore need to define the following concerning geo data for usage on the internet and the body to define them is not yet defined.

Attribute accuracy

Temporal accuracy

Lineage

Completeness

Logical consistency

Managing access to geodata may present a considerably more difficult challenge for Kenya in trying to implement web based GIS. There is a long history of disagreement on the issue of geodata sharing both within the country and in the rest of east Africa. No two countries have quite the same policies and procedures for the use of geodata, and there is no settled and accepted law or custom on this matter. Intellectual property rights, ownership, the right to change or modify the geodata, the means of paying for use, the appropriate charges, the control of who can access the data and for what purpose, permission for a user to modify the geodata, permission to resell the geodata, the means of access, the extent of the user community, and many other concerns are resolved in different ways by different organizations that own or maintain digital geodata.

9.      Lack of qualified staff

This is the issue that most frequently mentioned in the field of GIS. The fact that GIS is a relatively new technology means that staff with GIS training and skills are in high demand and beyond the reach of most existing departmental budgets in retraining.

The people to use these systems are typically technically literate and think of themselves as GIS professionals (career GIS staff) with degrees and, in many cases, advanced degrees in GIS or related disciplines.

 

  1. Corruption

This is the main hindrance and the effects are well manifested in all sectors of the economies of the developing world.

Advertisements
Standard
Advancing

The current geodetic reference system in Kenya

The Department of Surveys is the official agency of the government of Kenya on all matters affecting land surveys and mapping. Its’ main functions are:-

  • To provide and maintain plans for property boundaries in support of the Land Registration throughout the country.
  • To provide all kinds of topographical and thematic maps in both rural and urban areas of the country for use by other Government Departments and the general public.

The department has been in existence since 1903.    

The current geodetic network in Kenya was established during the colonial times by the British. Since 1892, several major triangulation networks have been observed and computed by various organisations for specific purposes. Each organisation thus chose the coordinate system that appeared suitable resulting in a number of different systems. For each sizeable network, the readily available datum was used resulting in many datums for both planimetric and height control.

Doppler observations were carried out by the survey of Kenya between 1972 and 1973. The aim of the exercise was to:

  • Evaluate the accuracy of the primary controls in Kenya;
  • Provide geodetic control in remote and un-surveyed areas in the country;
  • Strengthen the triangulation with precise position at optimum spacing;
  • Contribute to the development of a single well fitting datum for the African continent.

The ITT 5500 equipment was used. Doppler positioning using precise ephemeris fixed fifteen stations distributed over the country.

The current geodetic network in Kenya is based on the 1960 Arc Datum. The coordinates are in UTM. There the two main reference ellipsoids used in Kenya are Clarke 1858 and Clarke 1880.

The datum for all heights in Kenya is the mean sea level referred to a tide gauge at Kilindini harbour in Mombasa. This gauge has however been submerged and a new one constructed and connected to some fundamental bench marks. By the year 2000, 3570km had been precisely levelled, the last 70km having been carried out by the Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping between 1992 to 1993.

There are three coordinates systems that have been used in Kenya:

  • The Cassini-Soldner coordinate system;
  • The east African war system; and
  • The UTM coordinate system.

Before 1950, nearly all triangulation networks were based on the Cassini-Soldner coordinate system; hence the cadastral surveys in Kenya were also based on this system.

The east African war system of coordinates was introduced as a military system for east Africa. Its main aim was to unify the coordinate system for the British Commonwealth territories in the south, east and central Africa to avoid discontinuity in topographical mapping and grid references across territorial boundaries. The coordinates in this system have since been converted to UTM system.

The UTM system was introduced in Kenya in 1950 by the directorate of overseas survey (D.O.S), when it began providing survey work in Kenya. The system used Clarke 1880 spheroid; the unit of measurement was the international metre. The survey of Kenya has made an effort to convert all points to this coordinate system.

Problems experienced with the current geodetic network

Some of the problems that have been experienced through the continued use of the current geodetic network include:

  • The existence of different coordinate systems has caused the need for regular coordinate conversion especially from Cassini to UTM system of coordinates;
  • Pillars located at hills have been difficult to access and many have been destroyed; the network is also low;
  • Lack of suitable points to base the transformation especially from Cassini to UTM;
  • Lack of information or data from previous work as the records of surveys carried before 1950 are not readily available;
  • Height data has been found not consistent having been derived from different datums;
  • Equipment used earlier had lower level of precision and the network is generally weak;
  • Hydrographical charts are not fully developed due to lack of controls near the Indian ocean, and around the lakes;
  • Points established by space techniques are relatively few;
  • Re-establishment of destroyed pillars has not been carried out fully due to high cost of classical triangulation method.

Minimizing the current problems of geodetic network

There is continued effort to solve the problems resulting from the current geodetic network. This has primarily been done using the Global Positioning Service (GPS).

Since August, 1996, Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping (KISM), under the mini-project has been carrying out GPS surveys on first order triangulation pillars in an attempt to establish transformation parameters between the WGS 84 ellipsoid and Clarke reference ellipsoid used in East Africa. The work is still ongoing but is experiencing problems due to lack of funds.

The Survey of Kenya is in the process of establishing continuous GPS observation stations in Kenya. The following table indicates the ongoing phase one construction of the continuous GPS observation stations:

FID

SHAPE

NAME OF COS LOCATION

SOC

REMARKS

1.

Point

LOKITAUNG

KEN

 

2.

Point

MOYALE

KEN

 

3.

Point

LODWAR

KEN

COMPLETED

4.

Point

MARSARBIT

KEN

STARTS IN 2 WEEKS

5.

Point

MERU

KEN

COMPLETED

6.

Point

MANDERA

KEN

 

7.

Point

WAJIR

KEN

 

8.

Point

GARISSA

KEN

COMPLETED

9.

Point

BONDO

KEN

COMPLETED

10.

Point

LIBOI

KEN

 

11.

Point

HABASWENI

KEN

 

12.

Point

LOKICHOGIO

KEN

 

13.

Point

SABAREI

KEN

 

14.

Point

RCMRD

KEN

COMPLETED

15.

Point

MALINDI

KEN

 

16.

Point

KANZIKU

KEN

 

17.

Point

EL WAK

KEN

 

18.

Point

MARALAL

KEN

STARTS IN 2 WEEKS

19.

Point

KAPENGURIA

KEN

 

20.

Point

KILGORIS

KEN

 

21.

Point

KAJIADO

KEN

 

22.

Point

WUNDANYI

KEN

COMPLETED

23.

Point

KWALE

KEN

COMPLETED

24.

Point

MALINDI

KEN

COMPLETED

25.

Point

ERDAMA RAVINE

KEN

COMPLETED

Level 1 or Phase 1 comprises of 25 stations of zero order accuracy with nine stations completed.

Level 2 or phase two comprise of 72 stations, first order accuracy, to be done later.

Level 3 or phase 3 comprise of 125 stations, 2nd order accuracy, to be done later

Others include 3rd and 4th order types of which they are numerous in number although most of the points in this category are distributed mostly in urban areas with minimal or random distribution in the rural areas.

The locations of some Stations were changed as shown in the table below.

No.

ORIGINAL LOCATION

NEW LOCATION

1.

SHIMONI

KWALE

2.

VOI

WUNDANYI

3.

ASEMBO

BONDO

4.

PARSELOI

MARALAL

5.

KAPENGURIA

KANYARKWAT

                                       

Dimensions

Base plate is 2.5mx2.5m at 1.0 m deep

Column is 0.6mx0.6m at 2.7m deep on the ground.

Existence of IGS stations

There are two continuous GPS observation stations connected to the IGS (International Geodynamic GPS Services) stations; one is in Malindi and the other in KISM (Kenya institute of Surveying and Mapping). The station at KISM is currently not working. The data from these continuous recording stations are used for the computations of the baselines and eventual coordination of all other points.

 Conclusion

The problems exhibited by the current geodetic network in Kenya can be solved through the integration of GIS and GPS in all mapping aspects of the country. There is need for political will and financing of the Survey of Kenya in its efforts to carry out GPS observation stations through out the country. There is also the need for the government to source from the British, the early records of their geodetic surveys carried out in Kenya during the colonial times; this will greatly enhance the efforts of Survey of Kenya in trying to update the current geodetic network. The continuous IGS observation station at KISM needs to be restored to full functionality to complement the one operating in Malindi.

Standard
Advancing

SDI in North Africa

The term Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) refers to a collection of fundamental geospatial technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that encourages and improves the availability, access and exploitation of spatial data.  An SDI provides a framework for spatial data discovery, evaluation, and application for users and providers within all levels of government, the commercial as well as the non-profit sector, academia and individuals in civil society. SDIs comprise the main components of the wider information infrastructure of a nation or government, that is, agreed information standards, a requirement to create and publish metadata meeting these standards, and agreed policies on access to and reuse of spatial data, taking full account of current national practice regarding such policies.  SDIs can theoretically be developed at different scales and extents, for instance, at the largest scale a global SDI advances international cooperation between nations by facilitating data availability and accessibility through multi-lateral agreements on guiding principles.  On a smaller scale, any geographical unit defined by governments (districts, provinces, et cetera) having a common governance interest supported by a framework of fundamental spatial information could be considered an SDI.

 

In Africa, many countries have not been systematically mapped and only a few have maps covering their entire territory that can be adequately used for national development purposes. Generally, these maps and the associated data have been collected for the implementation of various development projects. However, this data often satisfies only the minimum requirement of the particular project and the data collection is done in a sporadic and uncoordinated manner with no intention of maintaining it. As a result the data generally become obsolete after the completion of the project and is often not accessible for purposes other than that of the project. This situation is negatively impacting upon effective decision making and development planning in Africa.

LIBYA

GPC group, a group of companies that provide geospatial consulting services and solutions globally, led an international team of consultants in the planning, design and initial implementation of the Libya Spatial Data Infrastructure (LSDI) initiative.  The LSDI was initiated formally in April 2006. The program was launched as a multiagency, collaborative process being coordinated by the Libyan Post, Telecommunications, and Information Technology Company (LPTIC), and under the leadership and guidance of the Chairman and the Chairman Advisory Committee. The first phase of the program is now complete, thanks to the cooperation and hard work of representative from the 17 government and institutional entities that have been most directly involved in this foundation building stage. With the successful completion of Phase 1, the LSDI program is now ready to move to the next stage of development to build towards a comprehensive national geospatial database network, to broaden the community of involved stakeholders, and to institutionalize information maintenance and sharing procedures across the government.

ALGERIA

Definition and promotion of a national GI policy is lead by The National Council of Geographic Information (NCGI). Created in 1996, the NCGI constitutes a framework of dialogue for the activities relating to GI in Algeria. It is this Council who aims to integrate GI policy with the Algerian developments in Information Society activities, including activities relating to their NSDI. In terms of developing Algeria’s national GI capacity, the NCGI has engaged studies articulated around several features. Firstly, the production of GI has been explored in terms of standards, the amounts of information needed and the rate at which localised data is being used to cover the national territory. They have also been trying to determine what support structures would be needed to increase their capacity and what expertise exists in the Algeria. This has occurred alongside an examination of the operational means for the production of geographic information. The public sector has had a specific role in this capacity building activity, alongside the creation of the NCGI. Their activities have included workshops and seminars to show the importance of Geographic Information to the wider community; a space program which aims to partly produce large scale cartography. In contrast, the private sector activity is limited to selling GI software and hardware. In some senses, Algeria lacks strengths in the development and implementation of GI, with particular weaknesses in their GI Association, communication and education and no involvement with European policies and legal frameworks. The public institutions are felt to be making significant progress but it is the private sector, in particular, who are seen as supplying the necessary communication, coordination, education and awareness of GI to other sectors. The most ‘satisfactory’ developments have occurred in terms of governmental activities, in relation to regulatory and legal frameworks and public administration, with the provision of GI and their NSDI and financial resources also seen as adequate. Understanding such developments have to be seen in the context of international cooperation, with neighbouring countries and beyond. Algeria participates in a number of GI activities with their North African partners. In terms of cartographic and reference functions, Algeria plays a role in the Regional Centre of Remote Sensing of North Africa States and the Regional and African space geodesy project, which will help to define a new geodetic reference system in co-operation with the International Association of Geodesy. They are also active in the Regional Information Centre for Spatial Science and Technologies which provides a research role in the region. There is also activity in environmental matters and monitoring desertification in the region has included participation in the Sahara and Sahel Observatory. Finally, they are also member of the Information Committee for Development, which is related to the Economic Commission for Africa and provides a base for development for Algeria and her neighbours.

EGYPT

Although some data in Egypt exist in digital form, most organizations are still keeping their data as paper maps. Digital data are not available and even analogue data are not widely accessible. Although the description of metadata is an important aspect in developed countries, it is almost ignored in Egypt. Most spatial data is still not documented. Moreover, obtaining data from organizations is restricted by unnecessary formalities. For example, because the digitization of topographic maps is not allowed, the users are moving to illegal digitization.

SDI in Egypt is still immature with many bottlenecks yet to be resolved, such as poor of partnerships, lack of digital data and metadata availability, lack of clear institutional framework, absence of an access and sharing mechanism to search desired data, and lack of national standards. These drawbacks will demand a lot of effort and requires coordination from different organizations to solve them. As of 29th June 2010, there had been developed a portal for spatial data, Egyptian spatial Data Infrastructure portal. This was to be run by the Egyptian Geography Network which is a national network of geographic information users and providers. The portal and all the links on the page, however, are not accessible, as the site was last updated on 29th June 2010.

The role of the Egyptian Survey Authority (ESA)

ESA is a governmental organization responsible of the cadastre services, topographic services and maintain the geodetic network in Egypt, besides other services. ESA has its own standards for all steps in producing maps. It also has all the assets of the maps produced by ESA or by other organizations, so all geospatial data are in its own warehouse. It has produced their metadata for the topographic maps with its different scales. It also made the cadastral catalogue for the 26 government units. There is also the digital catalogue which gives information about all digital maps covered by the topographic sector or the cadastral sector. The topographic and digital catalogue is available at ESA shop. ESA is building its own clearing house to publish their metadata over it. This is the first step in introducing their market for the services and products over the clearing house.

MOROCCO

Several departments are users of spatial data, mostly as hard copy, but increasingly, in a digital format. The two most significant organisations with respect to the creation, management and distribution of digital spatial data at a national level are the Administration of Land Conservation, the Cadastre and of Cartography and the Royal Centre for Remote Sensing (CRTS). Other departments involved in the creation of base digital spatial data are the Geology Directorate and the Statistics Directorate. The limited involvement of the private sector focuses largely on the development of specific applications.

The Department of the Prime Minister is creating a National council for Geographic Information (CNIG) that will develop the digital geographic information sector and put in place an institutional framework for the coordination of exchange procedures and the dissemination of digital spatial data. Currently the National Council for Cartography deals with aspects relating to mapping, while the National Council for Remote Sensing has recorded information concerning existent programs and base data developed by different departments. Both these committees’ research users’ needs and initiate programs in response to these needs.

Each institution is responsible for dissemination the data it produces. The CRTS provides information on the availability of digital spatial data and how data may be accessed through its website, www.crts.gov.ma. A further project underway is the archiving and access system for digital data, which became operational in September 2000. A study is underway regarding metadata and procedures for access and utilisation of digital spatial data. There is an awareness of the role that the availability of metadata can play in minimising duplication in data capture and ensuring appropriate use of existing data. While standards in general are addressed by a component within the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, which by and large adopts international standards, it is anticipated that the CNIG will form a working group to deal specifically with digital spatial data.

TUNISIA

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has been cooperating with the Tunisian government by providing technology transfers to assist in designing a national infrastructure for digital geographical data. Tunisian national geomatics program (GEONAT) website was officially launched on 26th April 2005. GEONAT is a national geomatics program that will provide Tunisia with a geospatial data infrastructure, making geomatics an important economic lever and establishes it as an activity that contributes to sustainable development. The website, http://www.geonat.gov.tn/export/intproj/tunisia/index_en.html, is still under construction.

As of 2008, Tunisia had initiated SDI development through legislation. Projects are on going to implement geographical databases alongside the creation of Geographical Repository and Spatial Data Warehouse especially in national organizations such as Agriculture and Environment. This will provide the framework for a Federated Research Project called the Global Information System Relative to the Air, the Earth and the Sea. The principal objective of this project is to offer the participants access to accurate and up-to-date data within the framework of Spatial Data Warehouse. The adopted steps consists of creation of National

Director of Geomatics office whose mandate is the identification geomatics programs and actions that should be concretised in the short and medium terms within the framework of implementing an information infrastructure as an important engine for socio-economic in the country.

Standard
Advancing

Web based mapping

Web mapping is the process of designing, implementing, generating and delivering maps on the World Wide Web and its product. It primarily deals with technological issues, while web cartography additionally studies theoretic aspects which include but not limited to the use of web maps, the evaluation and optimization of techniques and workflows, the usability of web maps, and social aspects. Web GIS on the other hand emphasises on analysis, processing of project specific geodata and exploratory aspects. Often the terms web GIS and web mapping are used synonymously, even if they don’t mean exactly the same. Web maps are often a presentation media in web GIS and web maps are increasingly gaining analytical capabilities.

Mobile maps, displayed on mobile computing devices, such as mobile phones, smart phones, PDAs and GPS are a special case of web maps; they are regarded as mobile web maps if they are displayed by a mobile web browser or web user agent.

The use of web maps can be regarded as a major new trend in cartography and has opened up new opportunities like real-time maps, cheaper dissemination, more frequent and cheaper updates of data and software, personalized map content, distributed data sources and sharing of geographic information. With web mapping, freely available mapping technologies and geodata potentially allow every skilled person to produce web maps. The cheap and easy transfer of geodata across the internet allows the integration of distributed data sources, opening opportunities that go beyond the possibilities of disjoint data storage. Everyone with minimal knowhow and infrastructure can become a geodata provider; this puts geodata in the hands of untrained people who potentially violate cartographic and geographic principles and introduce flaws during the preparation, analysis and presentation of geographic and cartographic data.

Standard
Advancing

Fraud

Fraud is defined as an act or course of deception, an intentional concealment, omission, or perversion of truth, to gain unlawful or unfair advantage, induce another to part with some valuable item or surrender a legal right, or inflict injury in some manner.Detection is defined as the act of noticing or discovering something, especially something that is not easy to see or hear. Fraud detection thus is the act of discovering deception or concealment to gain unlawful or unfair advantage, or inducing of individuals to part with money or advantage to would be fraudsters.

Fraud is a million dollar business and it is increasing every year. Fraud involves one or more persons who intentionally act secretly to deprive another of something of value, for their own benefit. Fraud is as old as humanity itself and can take an unlimited variety of different forms. However, in recent years, the development of new technologies has also provided further ways in which criminals may commit fraud. In addition, business reengineering, reorganization or downsizing may weaken or eliminate control, while new information systems may present additional opportunities to commit fraud.

 Traditional ways of data analysis have been in use since a long time as a method of detecting fraud. They require complex and time-consuming investigations that deal with different domains of knowledge like financial, economics, business practices and law. Fraud often consists of many instances or incidents involving repeated transgressions using the same method. Fraud instances can be similar in content and appearance but usually are not identical.

 In the technological systems, fraudulent activities have occurred in many areas of daily life such as telecommunication networks, mobile communications, on-line banking, and Ecommerce. Fraud is increasing dramatically with the expansion of modern technology and global communication, resulting in substantial losses to the businesses. Consequentially, fraud detection has become an important issue to be eexplored.

 Fraud detection involves identifying fraud as quickly as possible once it has been perpetrated. Fraud detection methods are continuously developed to defend criminals in adapting to their strategies. The development of new fraud detection methods is made more difficult due to the severe limitation of the exchange of ideas in fraud detection. Data sets are not made available and results are often not disclosed to the public. The fraud cases have to he detected from the available huge data sets such as the logged data and user behaviour. At present, fraud detection has been implemented by a number of methods such as data mining, statistics, and artificial intelligence. Fraud is discovered from anomalies in data and patterns. The objective of fraud detection is to maximize correct predictions and maintain incorrect predictions at an acceptable level.

Standard