Advancing

Qatar National Project Management – An overview

Qatar National Project Management (QNPM)

Qatar National Project Management (QNPM) is a Planning Council initiative to build and support professional project management capacity in Qatar’s public service. It began as part of a broad program to make their public service more efficient and effective. It combines international best practice with the insights of local experts who have years of project management experience. It is an evolving initiative that currently includes a framework for managing projects based on a project Lifecycle, with templates, job aids and other resources and a software tool to help you automate project management tasks and work with your team online. It offers practical advice and support for new project leads, experienced project managers, and executives interested in how a standard approach to project management can support their organization’s success.

In QNPM framework, a project lifecycle has three stages, Define, Plan, Implement, and Close.

A project is a temporary endeavour that creates a unique product, service or result. Project management is a defined body of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques for meeting project requirements. It has been proven to greatly increase the chances of achieving project success and delivering on time and on budget, and it is the most effective mechanism for achieving outcomes efficiently and effectively. It improves results by providing a structure for better information and better controls. The methods and techniques that make up project management are generic and they apply to projects of all types, regardless of size. The key elements of project management include techniques for managing a project’s scope, quality, time, cost, risk, human resources, procurement, and communications. A project lifecycle refers to the standard phases a project will move through as it moves from conception to completion. These stages are Define, Plan, Implement and Close.

1.       Define

In this phase the project manager proposes a project to senior management and stakeholders with a brief written description (the Project Definition Document). The project definition document helps support a shared understanding of what work the project will involve and what results it should achieve and is subject to approval.

Key activities are to:

Understand stakeholder interests and expectations

Establish a shared high-level understanding of the proposed project and its intended results

Seek approval from senior management to move to the Plan Phase.

Typically the deliverable for the Define Phase is the Project Definition Document. The Project Definition Document is not a Project Plan. It is much shorter, and it is designed to ensure there is enough interest in a project to justify the effort required to write a Project Plan, Schedule, and Budget. It contains the following:

  • Purpose
  • Problem/Opportunity
  • Project goal
  • Project objectives
  • Project scope
  • Key stakeholders
  • Outcomes/success criteria
  • Assumptions and constraints
  • Risks
  • Estimated cost
  • Estimated duration

A Business Case and Cost Benefit Analysis are produced instead of or in addition to a Project Definition Document when senior management needs a more detailed justification for a project. Business Cases are often required when projects:

  • Need large budgets
  • Need new funding
  • Will have a big impact on the organization, or
  • Will have a big impact on service delivery.

KEY DELIVERABLES

 Complete deliverables in the Define Phase will answer the following key questions:

  • Is this the right project?
  • What results should it achieve?
  • How will success be measured?

KEY RESOURCES

These job aids will help you complete project management deliverables in this phase.
Stakeholder Identification Checklist

Three Key Questions

Project Definition Document Preparation Guidelines

Business Case Preparation Guidelines

Quality Assurance Guide for Project Definition Documents

2.       The Plan Phase

Here the project is proposed in more detail, and an outline of a clear approach for executing the project is made.

Key activities are to:

  • Thoroughly plan the project activities, schedule, and resource requirements; and
  • Provide more detailed information to senior management for discussion and approval.

Deliverables in this phase build on the Project Definition Document and Business Case from the Define Phase.

A Project Plan will outline what work a project will do and how it will be executed, including timeline and budget information. Typically, a detailed Schedule and Budget are provided as appendices to the Project Plan.

KEY DELIVERABLES

The deliverables in the Plan Phase, when complete, should answer:

  • What activities and deliverables will be completed?
  • How long will the project take?
  • Who will do what?
  • What will the project cost?
  • How will risks and issues be managed?

KEY RESOURCES

1.How will we know when the project is complete?

The answer to this question is a list of outputs or deliverables, sometimes with measures of completeness or quality.

2. How will we know if the project has been a success?

The answer to this question names desired project results. It should not restate project outputs or deliverables; instead, it should state what impact outputs and deliverables will have on those outside the project.

3. Who gets to answer questions one and two?

The answer to this question names who the primary stakeholders are for a project.

3.       The Implement Phase

This is the phase where the work described in the Project Plan is actually done.

At the beginning of this phase, project mobilization or start up is done and it entails:

  • Securing the resources required to execute the project
  • Orientation of team members,
  • Getting started on the work plans.

Once the team is established, you control the execution of the Project Plan using techniques to manage risks, issues, changes, quality, and cost. You also manage communications, project documents, procurement, and human resources.

Key activities of the project manager are to:

  • Mobilize the team to execute the Project Plan
  • Control the execution of the Project Plan
  • Communicate with stakeholders
  • Report project status
  • Update the Project Plan, Schedule, Budget and Business Case as needed

KEY DELIVERABLES

Deliverables are divided into Project Mobilization and Project Control.

Project Mobilization Deliverables

When complete, the Project Mobilization deliverables should answer the following questions:

  • How will the team work together to manage risks, issues, and changes?
  • How will the team report status? How frequently?
  • What is the process for approving and storing project deliverables?
  • What are the expectations of the team regarding standards, methodologies, and templates?
  • How will the team communicate with stakeholders?

The key mobilization deliverables that clarify how the team will work are as follows:

The key mobilization deliverables for getting the team started and aligning stakeholders are as follows:

Project Control Deliverables

Complete Project Control deliverables answer the following questions:

  • How is project work progressing?
  • What issues, risks, and changes does the project face and how should these be managed?
  • How much is the project actually costing?
  • What results have been achieved to date?

The key project control deliverables for reporting status and maintaining project records are as follows:

KEY RESOURCES

4.       The Close Phase

This is the phase where you shut down the project in a controlled manner.

Key activities are to:

  • Demonstrate the project is complete
  • Assess the success of the project
  • Undertake administrative closeout
  • Transfer knowledge to the permanent organization
  • Support departing staff as the project ends and the team dissolves

KEY DELIVERABLES

KEY RESOURCES

QNPM Tool

The QNPM Tool is an important part of the QNPM initiative. It acts as a virtual project assistant and it includes customized and automated functions that you can use to manage workflow for issues, risks, schedules, resources, tasks, documents, and budgets. It can help you stay organized as you move through the stages of the project lifecycle.

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The role of Geospatial Technology (GIS) in the Kenya Vision 2030

The Kenya’s Development Blueprint (Vision 2030) was launched by H.E President Mwai Kibaki on 30th October 2006. It is a long-term development blueprint for the country, motivated by a collective aspiration for a much better society than the one we have today, by the year 2030. Its aim is to create a globally competitive and prosperous country with a high quality of life by 2030. It aims at transforming Kenya into “a newly-industrialising, middle income country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens in a clean and secure environment”. The vision was consultative and inclusive stakeholders’ process that involved international and local experts, ordinary Kenyans and stakeholders from all parts of the country. The Vision is anchored on three key pillars: Economic; Social; and Political Governance. The economic pillar aims to achieve an economic growth rate of 10 per cent per annum and sustaining the same till 2030 in order to generate more resources to address the millennium development goals. The social pillar seeks to create just, cohesive and equitable social development in a clean and secure environment. The political pillar aims to realise an issue-based, people-centred, result-oriented and accountable democratic system. The economic, social and political pillars of Kenya Vision 2030 will be anchored on the following foundations: macroeconomic stability; continuity in governance reforms; enhanced equity and wealth creation opportunities for the poor; infrastructure; energy; science, technology and innovation; land reform; human resources development; security; and public sector reforms.

Geographic Information System (GIS) is a special type of information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, process, analyze and visualize geospatial data and information in order to support decision making. It is essentially a spatial decision support tool. GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. The ability to separate information in layers, and then combine it with other layers of information distinguishes GIS from other information systems and is the reason why GIS hold such great potential as research and decision-making tools. GIS are now used extensively in government, business, and research for a wide range of applications including environmental resource analysis, land use planning, location analysis, tax appraisal, utility and infrastructure planning, real estate analysis, marketing and demographic analysis, habitat studies, and archaeological analysis. It has been extensively used in natural resources management, facilities management, land management and in the management of street networks like address matching, locational analysis or site selection, development of evacuation plans.

The role of Geospatial Technology (GIS) in the Kenya Vision 2030 will be discussed basing on the three key pillars of the vision: Economic; Social; and Political Governance.

Economic pillar: Moving the Economy up the Value Chain.

The economic pillar aims to achieve an economic growth rate of 10 per cent per annum and sustaining the same till 2030 in order to generate more resources to address the millennium development goals. This ambitious goal is to be attained by having a dedicated campaign to alleviate existing constrains to the future growth, efficient use of our resources, formalization productivity and distribution will increase jobs, incomes and public revenues). GIS will play a big role in economic growth business growth is location based and GIS has proven to be very useful in asset management, suitability analysis, policy making and impact analysis, site selection and marketing. This is done by having GIS help select the best areas for business location, best economic development activity that’s most suitable for what regions and it also assists to determine the growth if any in business and the impact of this to the economy. A GIS is a tool for managing business information of any kind according to where it’s located. You can keep track of where customers are, site businesses, target marketing campaigns, optimize sales territories, and model retail spending patterns.

Six key sectors have been identified to deliver the 10 per cent economic growth rate per annum envisaged under the economic pillar: tourism; agriculture; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; business process outsourcing; and financial services.

1. Tourism

Kenya aims to be one of the top ten long-haul tourist destinations in the world, offering a high-end, diverse, and distinctive visitor experience. This is to be done through; aggressively developing Kenya’s coast by establishing resort cities in two key locations; achieving higher tourist revenue yield by increasing the quality of service and charges in country’s premium safari parks, and by improving facilities in all under-utilised parks; creating new high value niche products (e.g. cultural, eco-sports and water-based tourism); attracting high-end international hotel chains; and investing in new conference facilities to boost business tourism.

Tourism is an activity highly dependent on environmental resources. It is also a phenomenon, which in the event of a lack of planning and management is likely to erode its environmental base. Hence, the strength of tourism planning can be enhanced by GIS applications. Geographical Information Systems can be regarded as providing a toolbox of techniques and technologies of wide applicability to the achievement of sustainable tourism development. Web based Geographic information systems provide ideal platforms for the convergence of tourist information and their analysis in relation to population settlements, surrounding social conditions, spatial characteristics, location and the natural environment. They are highly suitable for analyzing spatial data, revealing trends and interrelationships that would be more difficult to discover in tabular format. Moreover, GIS allows policy makers to easily visualize the problems, in relation to existing trends and the natural environment and so more effectively target resources. This application of GIS in tourism can have advantages both for tourists and for the tourism development authorities. The tourists will find, visualization of tourist sites through digital images or videos; valuable information on tourist locations; selective information like route planning, accommodation, cultural events and special attractions; easily accessible information over the internet;  and interactive maps that respond to user queries. The planning authorities will have great advantages in planning; database management; data updating; and planning for new site selections.

2. Agriculture.

Kenya aims to promote an innovative, commercially-oriented, and modern agricultural sector, through, transforming key institutions in agriculture and livestock to promote agricultural growth; increasing productivity of crops and livestock; introducing land use polices for better utilisation of high and medium potential lands; developing more irrigable areas in arid and semi-arid lands for both crops and livestock; and improving market access for our smallholders through better supply chain management. Vision 2030 aims at adding value to our farm and livestock products before they reach local and international markets.

GIS is used in a variety of agricultural applications such as managing crop yields, monitoring crop rotation techniques, and projecting soil loss for individual farms or entire agricultural regions. Balancing the inputs and outputs on a farm is fundamental to its success and profitability. The ability of GIS to analyze and visualize agricultural environments and workflows has proven to be very beneficial to those involved in the farming industry. From mobile GIS in the field to the scientific analysis of production data at the farm manager’s office, GIS is playing an increasing role in agriculture production throughout the world by helping farmers increase production, reduce costs, and manage their land more efficiently. The use of GIS software will help forecast elements that may affect agricultural productivity. Identifying and understanding the changeable elements in land empowers one to create accurate forecasts, and plan for maximum productivity. It will also provide a clear map of all geographical data, thus the ability to discover efficiencies for effective land management.

3. Manufacturing.

Kenya aims to have a robust, diversified, and competitive manufacturing sector, through restructuring key local industries that use local raw materials but are currently uncompetitive, exploiting opportunities in value addition to local agricultural produce, and adding value to intermediate imports and capturing the “last step” of value addition. In addition to fabrication, assembly, and material control, manufacturing operations involve activities similar to transportation, pipeline/utility, and municipal organizations; thus manufacturing could benefit from the application of GIS to a large class of logistics and operations management functions. GIS is used in site selection, material control, scheduling, and store planning and operations. GIS is thus becoming an integral part of the decision making process for the manufacturers.

4. Wholesale and Retail Trade.

The vision is to raise earnings by giving the large informal sector opportunities to transform itself into part of the formal sector that is efficient, multi-tiered, diversified in product range and innovative. GIS is used to do inventory, organize, analyze and present economic development data to retain or attract companies into an area. It offers the benefits of traditional database and multimedia systems while adding powerful spatial, analytical, map publishing and data integration capabilities that releases Internet map servers that are used to strengthen this lead and thus offering information to people who have an interest in an area and this attracts companies into the area. Organizations can go beyond standard data analysis by using GIS tools to integrate, view, and analyze data using geography. GIS accelerates retail location/site selection by identifying a site of high demand potential. GIS has solutions designed to help companies identify, analyze, and prioritize the fresh and upcoming business prospects and optimize existing sales and marketing programs to enhance their profit potentials.      

5. Business process outsourcing (BPO).

This is the provision of business services via internet to companies and organizations in developed world over the internet. We envision is to become the top off-shoring destination in Africa through attracting at least five major leading information technology (IT) suppliers, and at least ten large multinational companies and global BPO players to the country, and strengthening at least five local players to become local champions through stand-alone operations or joint ventures. GIS would provide tools for managing business information of any kind according to where it’s located; will keep track of where customers are, site businesses, target marketing campaigns, optimize sales territories, and model retail spending patterns.

6. Financial Services.

He vision is to is to create a vibrant and globally competitive financial sector promoting high-levels of savings and financing for Kenya’s investment needs; and for Kenya to become a regional financial services centre. Financial services/banking is a competitive business; market share and brand recognition alone are not enough to attract and retain customers. To be more effective, many banks, credit card companies, credit unions, and other financial services organizations are turning to GIS to help them understand their data better than ever. GIS allows organizations to: enhance understanding of risk, customer interaction, and economic conditions using spatial models based on geography and geodemographics; improve profitability and operational performance by sharing knowledge-based decision making across departments; grow line-of-business collaboration across departments with economic forecasts, neighbourhood studies, and territory analysis; reduce business complexity through a more accurate analysis of real-world market conditions; and increase market understanding based on a single, common view of business performance using geoextended workflow and business processes.

Social Pillar: Investing in the People of Kenya.

In building a just and cohesive society, that enjoys equitable social development in a clean and secure environment, the quest will be on the basis of transformation in eight key social sectors, namely: Education and Training; Health; Water and Sanitation; the Environment; Housing and Urbanisation; Gender, Youth, Sports and Culture, and special provisions for Kenyans with various disabilities and previously marginalised communities; equity and poverty elimination; and Science, technology and innovations. GIS is becoming a routine analysis and display tool for spatial data that is used extensively in applications such as land-use mapping for urban planning purposes, demographic mapping that is used for facilities location, utilities infrastructure mapping that’s used for precise gas, water, and electric line mapping, and multiple applications in natural resource assessment among others and like all technologies, GIS co-evolves with the societies of which it is a part.

1. Education and training.

Kenya will provide a globally competitive and quality education, training and research; and aims to be a regional centre of research and development in new technologies. This is to be achieved by integrating early childhood into primary education, reforming the secondary curricula and strengthening partnerships with the private sector as well as rejuvenate the special needs education facilities and incorporate adult raining. This entails the creation of new school, recruitment of new teachers, and creation of a supply chain of computers to schools as well as assistance being offered to the schools in poor areas.

GIS is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses almost each and every aspect of life and thus should be introduced in the Kenyan education curriculum. This will aid in demystifying science and technology and creation of employment. Building of new schools entails planning and mapping of old schools to make sure that some areas don’t have more schools than they need at the expense of others and GIS can offer the best maps for both the existing and the expected school locations. GIS population versus schools or versus literacy level  mapping of the Kenyan society would assist the government come up with the best locations of these new schools, the number of teachers required in each of the schools, as well as the best areas to introduce the adult learning centres.

2. Health.

The country aims to provide an efficient integrated and high quality affordable health care system. Kenya also intends to become the regional provider of choice for highly-specialised health care, thus opening Kenya to “health tourism”. This will be achieved through, provision of a robust health infrastructure network countrywide; improving the quality of health service delivery to the highest standards; promotion of partnerships with the private sector; and providing access to those excluded from health care for financial or other reasons.

GIS plays a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care, increasing accessibility of service, finding more cost-effective delivery modes, and preserving patient confidentiality while satisfying the needs of the research community for data accessibility. GIS has continued to be used in public health for epidemiological studies. By tracking the sources of diseases and the movements of contagions, agencies can respond more effectively to outbreaks of disease by identifying at-risk populations and targeting intervention. Public health uses of GIS include tracking child immunizations, conducting health policy research, and establishing service areas and districts. GIS provides a way to move data from the project level so that it can be used by the entire organization. Using GIS for demographic analysis to estimate the demand for various types of services can benefit individual physicians. GIS can enhance customer service for a health care provider, using, dynamic maps that show the location of services and making them readily available over the Web.

3. Water and Sanitation.

Kenya is a water-scarce country. The country aims to conserve water sources and enhance ways of harvesting and using rain and underground water. The 2030 vision for Water and Sanitation is to ensure that improved water and sanitation are available and accessible to all. This will be realised through specific strategies, such as raising the standards of the country’s overall water, resource management, storage and harvesting capability, rehabilitating the hydro-meteorological data gathering network, constructing multipurpose dams, and constructing water and sanitation facilities to support a growing urban and industrial population.

GIS is used to study drainage systems, assess groundwater, and visualize watersheds, and in many other hydrologic applications; this would greatly help determine the best areas to sink wells and the wells distribution in relation to the population in those areas; it will also help determine the best areas to irrigate and thus boost the agricultural production, access to water and sanitation.

 GIS is also used in the planning, engineering, operations, maintenance, finance, and administration functions of their water/wastewater networks. Thusplans like water supply networks, and the underground canal from Tana River to Garissa would be best planned, executed and managed using GIS which would help determine the best locations of these networks. Creation of dams is a task that requires determinations of dam locations and the lake size created by the dam; the best locations of these dams can be determined by GIS through mapping of soil structures.

4. The Environment.

Kenya aims to be a nation that has a clean, secure and sustainable environment by 2030. This will be achieved through: promoting environmental conservation to better support the economic pillar’s aspirations, improving pollution and waste management through the application of the right economic incentives, commissioning of public-private partnerships for improved efficiency in water and sanitation delivery, enhancing disaster preparedness in all disaster-prone areas and improving the capacity for adaptation to global climatic change.

GIS is used every day to help protect the environment; it is used to produce maps, inventory species, measure environmental impact, or trace pollutants. In the conservation and rehabilitation of our forest cover, GIS is essential as it will help it determining of the extent of destruction of the forests and thus come up with a proper plan on the conservation measures and mechanisms. Comparison of surfaces modelled by use of GIS at different times (years) would help curb further destructions and map out areas to be reclaimed back. Solid waste management can best be accomplished through the use of GIS; an example is the relocation of the Dandora dump site; an evaluation of the new dumping site in terms of environmental impact on the population is best done through GIS. Kenya depends highly on wildlife for her tourism industry; there is thus the need to map out the migratory routes of the wildlife to minimize the human-wildlife conflict; and even reclaim wildlife conservation areas.

5. Housing and Urbanisation.

The 2030 vision for housing and urbanisation is “an adequately and decently-housed nation in a sustainable environment.” This will be attained through: better development of and access to affordable and adequate housing, enhanced access to adequate finance for developers and buyers, pursuit of targeted key reforms to unlock the potential of the housing sector, and, initiation of a nationwide urban planning and development campaign, starting with Kenya’s major cities and towns. GIS is used to help visualize and plan the land use needs of cities, regions, or even national governments. Thus GIS would be used in the visualization and planning for new housing or upgrading of the existing housing schemes; it will also be extensively used in the planning and development of new metropolis like the upcoming Tatu and Konza cities. Land mapping through GIS will highly improve on the speed of service delivery and will eliminate the problems associated with unplanned development in the cities. Well planned cities/urban cities will result in well managed resources including housing for the urban populace.

6. Gender, Youth and Vulnerable groups.

The vision is to have gender equity in power and resource distribution, improved livelihoods for all vulnerable groups, and responsible, globally competitive and prosperous youth. Kenya also aims to capitalise on her international reputation as an “athletic superpower” by opening up the country for top global sports events, encouraged by corporate sponsorship. The Government will provide stricter enforcement of copyright laws in music and the performance arts, and provide facilities for the most talented musicians and actors. The country aims to be a competitive destination for global film producers. GIS should be used in population mapping in order to come up with a better formula for increasing participation of women in all economic, social and political decision making (an example in the increased number of female parliamentary representatives); this will also enhance the equitable distribution of the youth and female enterprise funds and the construction and distribution of social and economic amenities based on the population size. GIS will also be used in the financial management of the allocated funds in the administrative areas, reducing cases of embezzlement of public funds and biased allocation of funds.

7. Equity and poverty elimination.

The vision is to reduce the number of people living in poverty to a tiny proportion of the total population. Kenya is aiming to attain a society that guarantees equality of opportunity in accessing public services and providing income generating activities as widely as possible.  Kenya should learn from other countries who have embraced GIS in alleviating poverty; for example, the ecological dimension of poverty, watershed atlas, vulnerability atlas and mapping of the food insecurity in rural and urban India have been the efforts, closer to direct poverty mapping, in support of poverty alleviation process in the country. All these have been the products of information technology applications, especially remote sensing and GIS techniques. There is thus the need for mapping of the current poverty distribution in the country which can be done using GIS and from this map the government can place citizens at a level of income sufficient to cater for basic requirements of a healthy, productive life to regions where they do not exist currently. This would go a big way into assisting reduce inequalities across the economic and social initiatives proposed by vision 2030.

8. Science, technology and innovations.

Vision 2030 will be based on the creation of international competitiveness through more efficient productivity at the firm and household level with the government support. In order to achieve this there is need for more efficient improvement of social welfare, education curricula and specialized research centres, universities as well as business firms and agriculture. There is need for the country to come up with policies and centres whose sole responsibility is to instil the culture of science, technology and innovation to our populace in order to attain the standards in the aspirations of the Vision 2030. There will be no development if technology is put aside as we try to meet the goals. GIS, being a multidisciplinary application, will greatly aid in the goals. Each and every development carried out, for instance, transport networks, housing, urban and regional planning, poverty mapping, expansion and diversification of education, crime mapping, resource management, asset management and location planning, public health planning and disease surveillance, and expansion of social amenities, has a spatial concept and only systems with spatial capabilities (GIS), are best suited to handle the applications.

Political Pillar: Moving to the Future as One Nation.

The political pillar aims to realise an issue-based, people-centred, result-oriented and accountable democratic system. The transformation of the country’s political governance system under Vision 2030 will take place across five strategic areas: rule of law; electoral and political processes; democracy and public service delivery; transparency and accountability; and security, peace building and conflict management.

1. Rule of Law.

The vision is “adherence to the rule of law as applicable to a modern, market-based economy in a human rights-respecting state”. As our legal systems embrace the use of technology in their operations, GIS will come in handy in cases of mapping the locations of the judicial installations for ease access by the populace, crime mapping and compliance of the law. An instance is the mapping of tax compliance amongst property owners in an urban area and traffic offenders.

2. Electoral and political processes.

The 2030 Vision seeks to cultivate “genuinely competitive and issue-based politics”. Specific strategies will involve, introducing laws and regulations covering political parties, enhancing the legal and regulatory framework covering the electoral process, and conducting civic education programmes to widen knowledge and participation among citizens, leading to an informed and active citizenry. The role of GIS will be in the mapping of political hooliganism ‘hotspots’, electoral boundaries, political parties’ popularity within the country, level of political awareness in different location of the country, and the level of civic education required per region. It will also help in the improvement of voter tally reporting and recording to real time and thus reduce the cases of results manipulation.

3. Democracy and public service delivery.

The aim is to create “a people-centred and politically-engaged open society”. Geographic information systems provide unparalleled power to examine social, economic, and political circumstances. It can be used to come up with databases that are accessible to the public with information on the all that appertains to the governed and the governors with reference to their geographical locations, basic rights and legalities, and public amenities. This will open up the populace to the areas/sectors neglected by the government in service provision and thus help in addressing the governance issues.

 

4. Transparency and accountability.

 

The vision is to have transparent, accountable, ethical and results-oriented government institutions. This will be attained through strengthening the legal framework for anti-corruption, ethics and integrity, promoting results-based management within the public service, encouraging public access to information and data,  introducing civilian oversight around the key legal, justice and security institutions, and strengthening parliament’s legislative oversight capacity. GIS will be used in the creation of databases with information on all areas of operations in government services to the populace; making the databases accessible will improve transparency and accountability. Through the interfaces, the citizenry will have a forum for participating in governance and administration. With the era of government transparency and accountability, there is need for showing not only the way government is spending money but also where money is being allocated. Maps help us describe conditions, situations, and help tell stories, often related to one’s own understanding of content.  Using maps helps citizens quickly visualize and understand what the government is doing in the areas that are important to them. GIS can be used as an effective tool in responding to the increasing demand for government transparency; it has promoted the concept that online mapping and open access to geospatial data could create a more open and transparent government. Through Web GIS, the government can deliver information with more context and citizens will be able to visualize and understand the implications of various government economic activities.

               

5. Security, peace building and conflict management.

 

Vision 2030 aims at “security of all persons and property throughout the Republic”. This will be achieved through: promoting public-private cooperation and civilian/community involvement for improved safety and security, deepening policy, legal and institutional reform for improved enforcement of law and order, promoting national and inter-community dialogue in order to build harmony among ethnic, racial and other interest groups, promoting peace building and reconciliation to improve conflict management and ensure sustained peace within the country, and, inculcating a culture of respect for the sanctity of human life that does not resort to the use of violence as an instrument of resolving personal and community disputes. This should start with the family, schools, the church and all public institutions. GIS data and analysis are used for boundary delimitation and demarcation, field mission planning and operations, humanitarian intervention, logistics, resource allocation, and critical analysis and visualization for situational awareness and security. Through the use of mapping applications, the government will be able to solve problems on boundary conflicts; this will enhance peaceful coexistence amongst communities. The security arms of the government will benefit greatly if GIS was incorporated into their operations: Inventory of location of police stations, crimes, arrests, convicted perpetrators, and victims; plotting police beats and patrol car routing; alarm and security system locations, location of key emergency exit routes, their traffic flow capacity and critical danger points.

 

Which way?

 

GIS, being a multidisciplinary science, integrates so well in all aspects in focus in the vision 2030. Its application would foster a faster realisation of the goals, while offering a platform for the analysis of the progress against set targets, with options on continued review of the targets while ensuring set standards are met.  Each and every component in the vision has a geographic component; be it designing new roads, rail routes, new urban settlements, new businesses, emergency evacuation routes, climatic conditions suitable for a certain agricultural activity, location and distribution of schools and social amenities or the right soil type for a certain crop; it is thus imperative that the government impresses GIS as it is best suited to deal with data with a spatial component. GIS will also aid in a faster decision making as it eliminates the manual processes in many tasks, for instance, map making, and will increase the pool of the populace able to use and interpret geographic data.

 Despite the various GIS applications available for use, there are still many challenges preventing the uptake of the technology in our processes. This may explain why it might take a long time before the technology is fully incorporated into our government plans. The bureaucratic policy in government procurement coupled with the lack of will to embrace the technology, are a great hindrance in the acquisition of the hardware and software necessary to implement the GIS applications. The cost of the software is also a hindrance; the GIS software houses have placed a massive price tag to the software, thus hindering individual take up of the applications. The government is also reluctant to invest and fund the individuals or corporations interested in the GIS uptake. Since data constitutes a great deal in GIS, the limited shared databases in the country make it even more expensive to acquire data. There is also a limited number of individual in the country trained to be able to use the technology; this is because our current education system has not incorporated GIS in the curriculum as other countries, like Rwanda, have done.

 

In conclusion, GIS is vital in the actualisation of the vision 2030; it will be a great boost as it integrates easily into any aspect of the key three pillars of the dream. There is thus need to introduce GIS as a subject in our education curriculum, starting at the basic primary level of education. This is possible as other countries, like Rwanda, have successfully integrated GIS in their education curriculum. This will result in a populace that not only embraces GIS, but is well versed with it and thus increased development.

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TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT Geospatial DRM

The Geospatial DRM architecture is a high-level architecture of loosely coupled services that manage digital licensing functionality for GeoDRM based on the study of current digital licensing infrastructures.

The key purpose of the GeoDRM Abstract Rights Model is to create a simplified model of geospatial Intellectual Property so that it may be practically licensed, and most importantly, rights to that Intellectual Property may be managed and protected. With defined Intellectual Property boundaries, we are then able to share and trade rights to geospatial resources in a clearly defined and managed way. Implementation of GeoDRM requires several aspects which act as the technical infrastructure and this includes:

i.                    Geospatial Resource

This is a well-defined set of geographic resources or functionality that can be either a resource set, a subset of a resource as specified by a filter encoding, etc.

ii.                  GeoLicense Extents

This is the mechanism to manage and protect a geospatial resource. It is the expression of the rights and constraints on those rights to be performed against a geospatial resource. GeoLicense rights and constraints may be expressed using the following dimensions:

Right: A privilege that is granted by the Owner, like the right to View, Print, Copy, and Update a geospatial resource.

            Space: A geospatial area.

            Time: A period of time.

iii.                GeoLicense

This is the container expressing the rights to use a specified geospatial resource, for a given geographical space, over a specific period of time – subject to other conditions. Potentially, we have more than one time dimension, resource time or licence time. The time dimension of a GeoLicense means the period for which the licence applies (licence time). The spatial dimension could mean either the geospatial extents of the GeoLicense, or the legal jurisdiction where the license applies, or even the location of the licensee. The space dimension of a GeoLicense means the geospatial extents of the GeoLicense, namely that geospatial area of a given resource to which the licensee is granted rights.

iv.                GeoLicense Expression

GeoLicenses may be expressed in different forms, which include:

a)      Legal Expression

This is a legally binding expression of the terms and conditions of the licence, which may then be legally enforced.

b)      Simplified Expression

A simplified, more “human” readable version of the licence, expressing key terms and conditions, which may be easily read and understood by a more general audience.

c)      Formal Expression

This is a formal, computer encoding of the key terms and conditions, particularly the GeoLicense Extents. This encoded form of the GeoLicense may then be automatically enforced by the system, when the End-User requests access to the geospatial resource.

v.                  GeoLicense Creation and Enforcement

GeoLicenses are the containers to express the terms and conditions of a licensing agreement. GeoLicenses may be granted subject to conditions of acknowledgement, or GeoLicenses may be allocated based on a specific security and intelligence policy. GeoLicense creation and enforcement are separate workflows:

  • GeoLicense Creation: requires some form of negotiation to define terms and conditions.
  • GeoLicense Enforcement: Once GeoLicenses have been created, the System can enforce the formal expression of the licence. In the event that the terms and conditions of the legal expression are breached, then legal measures may be applied.

vi.                GeoLicense Delegation and Management

Geospatial DRM is essentially the process of creating, delegating, managing, tracking, validating and enforcing GeoLicenses. The intention is that a GeoDRM-enabled network of services will automate some or all of these functions.

A key aspect of a scalable network is the ability to delegate responsibility to these actors in a controlled and managed way. The system would be unscalable if the administrative burden was placed on the content owner alone. Therefore a key capability for the success of a GeoDRM-enabled system is the ability to delegate these key functions. By necessity, intermediary actors may be needed to perform these administrative functions.

The owner (Licensor) of the Intellectual Property can delegate the creation and management of GeoLicenses to a Licensing Agent. Licensing Agents are granted the right (authority) to issue GeoLicenses subject to defined extents and conditions as defined in the agreement.

vii.              GeoLicense Chaining

GeoLicenses need to be traceable back to the Owner of the geospatial resource. GeoLicenses may be “chained” where the Owner defines the top-level constraints and terms and conditions flow down the licence chain. GeoLicenses are managed by the Licence Manager, and licences are validated back up the licence chain. This is a key concept that is needed to allow the delegation of licensing responsibility and supporting the need for the distributed licensing of geospatial resources.

viii.             GeoLicensing Communities

Data sharing between human beings requires the sharing of a common understanding of information structures and their meaning. Data sharing and trading tends to take place within communities of trading partners. Over time standard ways of exchanging information will evolve, for example, standard vocabularies to describe geographic features and processes, standard licence agreements or perhaps standardised pricing models. For the geospatial problem domain, the OGC has introduced the concept of an information community in their OpenGIS Reference Model.

One example to achieve a common understanding for the exchange of geographic information is based in GML. It defines the structure (XML encoding) of geographic phenomena and their meaning and uses the GML namespace to make them distinguishable from other definitions. In order to actually exchange GML structured data, the declaration of an application schema is required, but is not permitted to change either the structure or the definition of GML’s predefined elements.

Adopting this to the GeoDRM domain, a GeoLicense community can be characterized as a domain of participants (licensor, licensee, licence broker, service provider, etc.) that communicate to each other for the purpose of exchanging licensed geospatial data. In order to do so it is important that all members of the community obey the same structure of a licence (independent by which member it has been created or used) and to the meaning of rights, as they are expressed in the licence.

ix.                 GeoLicensing and Resource lineage

Lineage or provenance of a geospatial resource is an important factor for both producer and consumer of geospatial information. Consumers need the assurance that the data is fit for purpose and can be used to support critical decisions, whereas providers require recognition for their contribution to a final information product.

A GeoDRM-enabled set of processing resources will allow the lineage or provenance of the derived information product to be traced. As data is processed through a chain of processing resources, a process history could be generated listing those resources that have been used to generate a derived product.

x.                   Handling GeoLicense Violation and the break-the-glass principle

GeoLicense validation will be performed by the DRM Gatekeeper. Enforcement will be the combined responsibility of the associated Security system and the Gatekeeper. The Security system will verify the information passed to the Gatekeeper for the validation of the licence use. During the verification and validation of a GeoLicense, potential licence violations may be identified.

If the Security system performs strictly, no actual violation will occur and the user will be informed of the “error” in his request (the lack of sufficient licence information). The user may also be passed information as a side effect of the attempted resource access.

If the Security system is less strict, and allows the access requested despite the lack of Gatekeeper validation, then a licence violation would have occurred. In creating the context applicable to the resource in question, the Owner (or his agent) may place side affects to attempted use of invalid licences, which would include either the actions that the Owner feels appropriate to such attempts, or triggers that activate remediation efforts through the licence chair of agency, possibly all the way back to the Owner.

Two general principles should be applied when a GeoLicense violation is identified:

  • The Owner is responsible for defining what action is performed in response to a licence violation.
  • For those resources that may be needed in an emergency situation, the user should be able to override the license conditions (break the glass) and have unconstrained access to the resource.

xi.                 Automated license revocation/expiration

GeoLicenses are revocable and can expire. Once a license has been issued, a mechanism is needed to allow the license to be revoked. This capability is needed for the scenario where the content owner needs to revoke rights to a resource, or where the license has a limited lifetime and expires.

The mechanism for revocation is usually associated to the Licensor metadata in the license (see ISO 21000-5, 0). The licensor informs the Gatekeeper or Security systems how to verify a license document is still valid by including it with the information in the licensor “signature” included in or associated with the license.

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GEOSPATIAL DRM (GeoDRM)

Geospatial DRM is as a set of technologies and legal frameworks that are fit for a certain organisational need, enabling rights-managed geospatial networks like SDIs, where all rights over geospatial assets are specified by licensors and any licensee would be trusted to honour the licensor’s conditions within and beyond the network’s trusted environment like remote clients.

Since the introduction of the OGC Web Map Service in 2000 many SDI components are available as products and many are already deployed worldwide. The released service implementation specifications do not cover business aspects at all and thus an OGC specific legacy problem is evident. A clear separation between expert service, like WFS, and business services, like Security, offers additional advantages. An example is that a single GeoDRM implementation can cover multiple OGC Services.

For the licensing of digital content, different standards already exist but the existing standards describe the licensing of digital media content and cannot be used for licensing of geographic information unless they are extended. In March, 2007 the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC®) membership approved the Geospatial Digital Rights Management Reference Model (GeoDRM RM), an abstract specification for the management of digital rights in the area of geospatial data and services. GeoDRM has legal and technological aspects. The GeoDRM Abstract Rights Model key purpose is to create a simplified model of geospatial Intellectual Property so that it may be practically licensed, and most importantly, rights to that Intellectual Property may be managed and protected. It is about establishing shared notions, conventions and practices that express the boundaries within the Intellectual Property “landscape”. With defined Intellectual Property boundaries, we are then able to share exchange and trade rights to geospatial resources in a clearly defined and managed way

The goal of the GeoDRM effort in the OGC is to make sure that a larger market has access to geospatial resources through a well understood and common mechanism that enables more than today’s “all or nothing” protection. A major motivation for this effort is the need to manage the “ownership obstacle to data sharing” in spatial data infrastructure scenarios.

As technology pushes various industries toward the digital frontier, many types of content are becoming available solely in digital format, and geospatial data is no exception. Copyright-protected geospatial content used to be sold on paper sheets but is now available in digital format. As a result, such content can now be used by a variety of users and devices. Digital geospatial datasets moving across computer net­works can be easily copied, transformed, or incorporated into new value-added products and services. Geospatial-data producers and owners are faced with the challenge of controlling the dissemination of their digital geospatial assets down­stream in the geospatial value chain.

Relevance of GeoDRM

The Rights Model for digital geographic content must accommodate licensing for different types of business relationships and participants with different roles. Direct licensing as well as sub-licensing can take place for business-to-business or business-to consumer relationships. For sub-licensing, it must be possible to grant licences for issuing licences, which is not covered by existing ISO-REL Rights Models.

 Licensing in the GeoDRM domain must support the licensing of digital content, based on different infrastructures, licensing can take place for a static product as it can be delivered on CD-ROM. More important is the aspect that licensing can also take place on geographic information as it can be dynamically created by using OpenGIS Web Services. For example, maps can be created by using a Web Map Service and feature collections can be created by executing a Web Feature Service. The GeoDRM Rights Model therefore supports the capability to describe rights for executing a service using certain constraints on parameters. This capability is also not covered by other Rights Models.

 Licensing of geographic information requires support to declare and enforce rights, as they are based on the geometry of the digital content. This capability is described in this standard by defining geo-specific conditions on a right.

 GeoDRM Roadmap

To support GeoDRM-enabled licensing of geographic information, as it can be available offline or online in a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), different functionalities can be identified as necessary. These will allow the definition of interfaces between the packages to ensure interoperability and responsibilities for each package to return the expected result upon a given request.  Below are the possible packages:

Rights Model

 It defines the basis for developing a geo-specific Rights Expression Language as well as other specifications necessary to establish a GeoDRM- enabled SDI.

Rights Expression Language

It provides the capabilities to express usage rights in the form of a machine-readable and machine-processible representation.

Encryption

It includes required functionality to protect a GeoDRM-enabled SDI against fraud. Encryption enables the protection of a licence so that it cannot be modified by an adversary in order to obtain additional rights. Encryption is also useful to protect the digital geographic content against unlicensed use. An example from the music industry exists, where the encrypted music file can only be decrypted (and played) by a certified software or hardware device.

Trust

Every type of business relationship that has been represented in an electronic way needs a mechanism to differentiate between reliable and unreliable partners. In that sense, trust tells a relying partner that the other behaves in a certain predictable (loyal) way.

License Verification

This package defines the functionality that is required to validate a licence. The licence verification has to occur before the rights of the licence can be enforced.

Enforcement and Authorization

The rights expressed in a Geo-License need to be enforced. In this specification, this package functionality is represented by the “Gate Keeper” metaphor. The acceptance or denial decision for a particular request (with its associated licences) is based on the authorization decision, as it is derived by the authorization engine.

Authentication

The basic requirement for trust, licence verification and enforcement/authorization is proof of identity, as it is provided by the functionality of this package. Different international standards, which define how to enable this functionality, exist.

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Advantages of Digital Rights Management (DRM)

DRM enables content creators to get paid

There is need to control at least some of the content some of the time, or piracy rates will get so high that content owners cannot stay in business.

DRM enables new business methods

Having content in digital on-line form, in conjunction with ubiquitous Internet access, creates many opportunities for creative content businesses. This has been true for some time, but only in a few cases, like iTunes, has it been taken proper advantage of.

 DRM can help save history

If I have truly acquired a RIGHT to content, as opposed to a physical medium containing the content, then there is the potential for one to get that content anywhere, anytime, in any format required by evolving technologies.

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Digital Rights Management for Geospatial Content

To create and support a large-scale, open market in geospatial resources, Digital Rights Management for Geospatial Content is needed to assure that a “fair value for work (investment)” ethic can be guaranteed so that suppliers of geospatial content can be sure of fair return on individual sales, and users can be sure of fair value for purchases and uses of the geospatial resources.

In a digital world, due to the nature of digital resources and commerce, most digital entities are not sold in the usual sense. When a user acquires an application, he actually acquires the right to use a copy of the application. Possession is not equal to ownership and a system of software and resource licensing has grown up in the digital world that ensures:

  • The user may legitimately act upon a resource if he has a corresponding license for that act
  • The owner should maintain the resource, fixing error and assuring a guaranteed level of functionality
  • The user may be asked to pay the owner of the resource based upon agreed criteria, whether that is a one-time fee, a per-machine fee, a usage fee or some other mechanism stated in the legal contract or license between user and owner
  • The user agrees to protect the owner’s rights based on the agreement. This usually means he cannot backward engineer code or resource, nor redistribute the resource without proper permission
  • The owner agrees to maintain the resource and allow a reasonable access to the users for any fixes that may be required. Again, the extent or degree of maintenance is stated in the user agreement

Digital Rights management, DRM, is any technology that inhibits uses of digital content that are not desired or intended by the content provider and includes specific instances of digital works or devices. For digital content it means preventing the consumer access, denying the user the ability to copy the content or converting it to other formats, while for devices it means restricting the consumers on what hardware can be used with the device or what software can be run on it.

The first-generation of Digital Rights Management focused on security and encryption as a means of solving the issue of unauthorized copying, by locking the content and limiting its distribution to only those who pay. It represented a substantial narrowing of the real and broader capabilities of DRM. The second-generation of DRM covers the description, identification, trading, protection, monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights usages over both tangible and intangible assets including management of rights holders’ relationships. Thus, DRM manages all rights, not only the rights applicable to permissions over digital content.

Although DRM does come in many different forms, it usually has four common stages: 

  • Packaging is when DRM encryption keys are built right into the software, the music file, or the movie file.
  • Distribution is when DRM-encrypted files are delivered to the customers. This is usually through web server downloads, CD’s/DVD’s, or via files emailed to the customers.
  • License Serving is where specialized servers authenticate legitimate users through an Internet connection, and allow them to access the DRM files. Simultaneously, license servers lock up the files when illegitimate users try to open or copy the files.
  • License Acquisition is where legitimate customers acquire their encryption keys so they can unlock their files
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